Metron C++ to Verilog Translator Tutorial Source on Github
Metron lets you write synthesizable Verilog in plain C++

Metron is a tool for converting a very limited subset of C++ into a very limited subset of Verilog. Even though it's limited, the C++ that Metron can convert is still enough to be useful. The C++ source code can be easily run inside a trivial simulation framework. The same code converted to Verilog can be simulated in Icarus or Verilator, converted to RTL (Register-Transfer Level, a generic term for circuit "assembly language") netlists by Yosys, packed into FPGA bitstreams by NextPNR, and uploaded to a development board using IceProg - all open-source tools.

If you're completely unfamiliar with Verilog I'd recommend reading through a "Hello Verilog World" tutorial elsewhere before going through this one, but the TL;DR of Verilog is that it's a language for "writing" logic circuits. Verilog looks superficially similar to C, but the semantics of how it "executes" a circuit is _very_ different. Compiled Verilog programs describe networks of logic gates and wires, not sequences of instructions. Translating between the two languages is thus fraught with peril, and Metron is a noble attempt to bridge between the two by enforcing a set of rules on the C side to help ensure that the translation is possible.

Writing logic in Metron is generally much more user-friendly than writing Verilog directly. Metron source code is plain, unannotated C++ with zero dependencies and can be compiled, run, and debugged in any C++ environment. The Metron tool itself can be used as just a code-linter to determine if your C code does anything that doesn't have an equivalent in Verilog, or it can generate an entire project's worth of Verilog files in one step. If you need to do low-level bit twiddling to interface with hardware, Metron provides a "metron_tools.h" header file that defines a fairly fully-featured "logic<N>" template class that simulates arbitrary bit-width integers in C++ with almost no overhead.

Simulation performance varies a lot depending on the codebase, but in general Metron designs simulate from 2x to 5x faster than the same design written in Verilog and translated back to C by Verilator. For interpreted simulators like Icarus, the difference is more like hundreds or thousands of times faster. Yes, you can translate from C to Verilog with Metron and then translate it back to C with Verilator and both versions should produce bit-identical results. This is useful for debugging Metron itself.

This tutorial is targeted at programmers with a basic understanding of C++ classes who may or may not have tried their hand at Verilog before. Some of the hardware-side explanations may require a deeper understanding of how circuts work, but in general you should be able to follow along.

All of the code editors below are live - edit the C++ code on the left and you should see your converted code on the right. If your code isn't convertible to Verilog, the title bar on the right will turn red and you'll see some (still pretty cryptic) error messages instead. Switching between files and creating new files can be done by changing the filename above the source window. Files will persist in the virtual filesystem until this page is reloaded.

One note when editing the live code - Metron is based on TreeSitter, which is _very_ lenient about the code it parses. Metron in contrast is _very_ strict about what code it will convert. The combination can be awkward, and there's no support in this tutorial for doing syntax checking on the C source before we try to convert it. Watch out for typos, and if all else fails just refresh the page and start over.

(One side note for the Verilog experts reading this - I'm aware that I'm playing fast and loose with my terminology here and not distinguishing between the language features of Verilog vs. SystemVerilog. It's a tutorial, the deeper discussions will go on some other page.)

Let's begin by counting.

The first useful circuit most Verilog tutorials present is a simple counter, so let's take a look at Metron's version:

Yeah, that's it. That's the whole thing. Metron doesn't require any additional headers or libraries or code annotations, so a plain C++ class header file works just fine. Metron applications are just collections of header files that you can use in a host C++ application like this:

#include <stdio.h>
#include "examples/tutorial/counter.h"

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
  Counter counter;
  for (int cycle = 0; cycle < 1000; cycle++) {
    printf("Counter value %d\n", counter.count);
  return 0;

If we compare the C++ version of our counter with the Verilog version, the differences are:

The "class" keyword turned into "module" and the curly braces are now "begin"/"end(module)"

While technically speaking Verilog does have classes, they're usually not synthesizable - they can't be turned into circuits. The basic synthesizable "unit" of a program in Verilog is a Module, which is similar to a class but much more restrictive.

Verilog generaly uses "begin"/"end" instead of curly braces, but these are purely textual changes and don't affect the meaning of the program.

The module has a "port list" containing a clock and the "count" member, now with an "output" label

Unlike C, connectivity between modules and the outside world is much more limited. Everything is private-ish by default unless exposed through a "port", which you can think of as something like a reference in C++. Since our "count" variable is public, Metron has moved it to the port list so that it can be seen outside the module. This module also needs a clock for the "always_ff" block below, so Metron has added a default clock signal to the port list for us.

The "update" function is now in a block starting with "always_ff @(posedge clock)"

The statement "always_ff @(posedge clock)" means something like "every time the clock signal transitions from 0 to 1 (a 'positive edge'), do this", which brings up an important point - When we translate Metron programs into Verilog and upload them to a FPGA, they're not "running" in the same sense that C code runs after we compile it: circuits don't evaluate blocks of code in order, they don't call functions, they're literally bundles of wires running between logic gates and everything is happening simultaneously. Instead of function calls, Verilog code is "triggered" to run when certain things happen - when a clock signal changes from 0 to 1, when an input wire changes value, etecetera.

The "count++" statement became "count <= count + 1" - what does "<=" mean?

Verilog has two ways of doing "assignment" - there's the "=" operator, which works roughly the same as in C. There's also the "<=" operator, which does not work like C. The "<=" operator, also called the "non-blocking assignment operator", is more like a "delayed assignment" or an "assignment promise" - the field assigned will be set to the new value, but it hasn't happened yet - if you're writing Verilog and you read from the field after a non-blocking assignment, you read the old value.

Non-blocking assignments work together with "always_ff" blocks - a clock edge triggers a bunch of always_ff blocks to be evaluated, the code non-blockingly (yes, my terminology is awkward) assigns things, and then at some unspecified* point in the future after all triggered blocks have been evaluated the assignments take effect. Because non-blocking assignments behave differently from regular assignments in C, Metron will generate an error if you read from a variable after it's assigned if that assignment would be non-blocking in Verilog.

* (It's not actually unspecified, it's defined in the Verilog language spec - but for the purposes of this tutorial delayed assignments happen in *handwaving* THE FUTURE.)

Try commenting out the "int dummy = count;" line below to fix the error.

Well that seems kinda silly. Surely if you're analyzing the code you could insert some temporary variables while you're translating it so we don't have to worry about this read-after write rule?

You're not wrong, Metron could definitely do that - but it doesn't for a good reason. One of Metron's goals is to produce translated Verilog that matches the original C++ as closely as possible. There are other {language}-to-Verilog translators out there that do much, much more advanced analysis of their input source code in order to generate Verilog that can handle almost anything C can throw at it. This includes things like unrolling loops, pipelining function calls, and automatically generating state machines (or even entire virtual CPUs) to ensure that most existing C functions and algorithms can be translated to Verilog without rewriting the source. Those tools do work very well - the keyword to search for is "High-Level Synthesis" (a.k.a. HLS) if you'd like to learn more. However, the translated code often borders on unreadable to a C programmer.

Metron is not a high-level synthesis tool. Metron is a low-level tool that only handles translation between the subsets of C and Verilog that can be done without radically altering the structure or meaning of the original codebase.

Signals Vs. Registers

Let's look at another basic Verilog example for comparison, a 32-bit adder - this time with both a "C-style" implementation and a "Verilog-style" implementation:

The two versions of Adder do exactly the same thing. In the first version, Metron has inferred that since add() is public, its parameters and return values need to be present in the port list. Metron then prefixes the parameters with the function name and creates a port named "{function}_ret" for the return value. In the second version the params and return value are already represented as public variables and Metron just moves them to the port list unchanged.

What does "always_comb" mean? We had "always_ff" earlier, how does this differ?

Unlike our counter, "Adder" has no internal persistent state. Values enter through the "a" and "b" input ports, get added together, and immediately exit through the "sum" or "ret" output port. Since there's no clock involved in the computation, the module doens't get a clock signal added to its port list and "always_ff" doesn't apply. Instead Metron uses "always_comb" to indicate that this block is triggered whenever any of its inputs change. Also note that in "always_comb" we use the regular "=" operator and not "<=" - assignment to "sum" happens continuously and isn't delayed until the end of the simulation step. In Verilog this is sometimes called "continuous assignment".

In the previous example, the "count" port was an "output register", but "sum" is an "output signal". What's the difference?

In order for Metron to convert your C code, it needs to be able to infer which member variables are "register-type" and which are "signal-type" (the equivalent terms in Verilog are "reg" and "wire"). There's a whole separate document in the Metron repo going into more detail on how the inference works, but to summarize:

* (This implies "synchronous" and not "asynchronous" resets in Verilog, which generally won't affect us too much.)

If Metron can't infer the translation type of a member variable or if it sees a variable that breaks both the "read-before-write" and "read-after-write" rules, it will refuse to translate the code. This is a fundamental part of Metron's attempt to guarantee that the translated code behaves identically in both languages. I believe that the logic it uses to do this is correct, but I only have a very informal proof at this point - caveat emptor.

Ticks Vs. Tocks

What if we want an adder that only changes its output when the clock ticks, instead of changing continuously?

It's totally reasonable to want to delay the output of a computation until the next clock cycle - the module that sent A and B in to be added may not be able to process the result until the next clock cycle, or we may have timing constraints in our system that require us to break our computations down into smaller steps. We have two ways of forcing a computation to be "clocked":

Again, both of the "clocked" adders do the same thing. The first inserts a dummy read so that "sum" is always read-before-write (and thus _must_ be a register), the second uses the magic prefix "tick" to flag the method as "must be in (or called by) an always_ff block". One caveat though - "tick" methods can't return values, as doing so would create a mismatch between the C++ behavior (the return value would be immediately visible to the caller) and the Verilog behavior (the value visible in the port would be delayed until the clock edge).

There's an equivalent "tock" prefix to enforce "must be in always_comb", but both prefixes are completely optional. They come in particularly useful when porting existing Verilog code to Metron - you may want to do this if you're trying to interface Metron code with an existing codebase. Translate "always_comb" blocks into functions that start with "tock", "always_ff" blocks into functions that start with "tick", and stuff any loose "assign wire = value" statements into new always_comb blocks - Metron will usually tell you if you get something wrong (and it's almost always related to declaration order, see the section below).

Internally, Metron categorizes all member functions into "tick-type" and "tock-type" groups much like it does with member variables, plus a few additional categories ("init-type" for constructors and "func-type" for pure functions).

Declaration Order Matters

Metron traces through your code to verify that the rules regarding register read-before-writes and signal write-before-reads are followed. To do so, it needs to know what the "entry points" are to your module and in what order they should be called.

The rule that Metron uses to determine entry points is "All public methods that aren't called elsewhere in the module are entry points", but the declaration order of those entry points is significant:

Unlike earlier examples, these modules do not do the same thing.

In the commented-out Module1, the code "a = b + 1; b = a + 1;" reads from "b" before it's written and writes to "a" before it's read. This means "b" must be a register and "a" must be a signal - but registers can only be written in "always_ff" and signals can only be written in "always_comb", so we've broken a rule and the code won't convert.

In Module2 and Module3 we've split update() up into two pieces - the only difference is the declaration order of "update_a" and "update_b". Metron must choose _some_ order in which to trace the entry points, and the only order that doesn't require special annotations is the declaration order. So in Module2 Metron sees "a" being written first and makes it a signal, whereas in Module3 Metron sees "a" being read first and makes it a register. Module4 works around this by adding temporary variables, which makes Metron see that both "a" and "b" are read before being written.

If we were writing this directly in Verilog this issue would be irrelevant, as we can choose whether to use "<=" or "=" assignments as needed - because "<=" assignments are "delayed", this has the same effect as Module4 above.

module Module4 (
  // global clock
  input logic clock,
  // output registers
  output int a,
  output int b

  always_ff @(posedge clock) begin : update
    a <= b + 1;
    b <= a + 1;

Unfortunately in C we only have the one assignment operator, so there's no way for us to know that the programmer meant "non-blocking" assignment. Instead we have to infer which Verilog assignment operator to use based on context, and our context is intimately tied to declaration order. Metron could in theory support "reg_" and "sig_" prefixes on variables like it supports "tick_" and "tock_" on methods, but in practice I found the resulting code style annoying and didn't finish implementing it. Maybe it'll go on the feature request list.

Because Metron uses declaration order to determine how to trace your module's methods, it is highly recommended that you place all your public tock-type methods together at the top of the class declaration, followed by all your public tick-type methods. Private methods can go in any order at the bottom of the class declaration.

Functions Vs. Tasks

While the examples we've looked at so far only use "always_comb" and "always_ff" on the Verilog side, Verilog does support functions in two different flavors, which Metron will use in different cases:

* (not true according to the spec, but void functions are poorly supported by some tools)

* (Metron could probably support pass-by-reference in tasks using output params, but it's not quite there yet.)

Metron will usually translate methods into functions or tasks where applicable, though there are a few corner-cases to work around bugs in some existing tools.

Bit Twiddling Logic

One thing that Verilog developers do vastly more often than C developers is bit-twiddling - extracting, copying, concatenating, inverting, and generally mucking around with individual bits inside a variable. There are some Verilog features to support this that just have no equivalent expression in C (the "?" symbol in case statements for example), but most of it can at least be emulated using some C++ template tricks. Metron has special support for translating operations on C types into the corresponding native Verilog "logic" type, which is a built-in type with its own concatenation and duplication operators. Note that you'll need to include "metron_tools.h" to use these helper methods.

The logic<N> template type defined in metron_tools.h behaves like an unsigned integer with an arbitrary number of bits up to 64. Type-checking conversions between logics of different width is lenient due to the Verilog spec, which generally says you can assign anything to anything and you'll get either a truncated value or 0s. The template bit-width is used in dup() and cat() to ensure that concatenating a logic<2> and a logic<3> produces a logic<5> and that duplicating a logic<4> 7 times produces a logic<28>, that sort of thing.

Note that while extracting slices of bits using "bN(x, offset)" is supported, assigning to slices of bits currently isn't - there is some functionality for it in metron_tools.h, but it breaks tracing because we don't trace reads and writes on a per-bit level yet. Prefer reading and writing entire fields at a time, and use dup/cat/extract as needed to build up your new values.

The logic<N> template along with the bN(), cat(), and dup() methods have been benchmarked in Visual Studio, Clang, and GCC and generally have little (VS) to no (GCC/Clang) performance impact over doing the same operations manually with bitshifts and bitwise ops.

Building larger things by combining modules

Modules can be nested. Since all the tutorial examples here are stored in a virtual filesystem, we can just #include the earlier examples we want to use into this one. And yes, you can go back and edit the counter and adder examples and changes you make will affect the example below, though you may need to type in the source window to trigger an update as this tutorial doesn't know anything about dependencies between files.

Here's what we get if we make a module that combines a Counter and an Adder:

This is the first example with function calls across modules, and you can see from the generated code that Verilog doesn't actually have any native way to do that. Instead, we have to "bind" variables to the module ports and we can then read and write those variables from the parent module to control the behavior of the child module.

I described "ports" earlier as something vaguely like C++ references, and you can see the similarity here - "int my_adder_add_a" and the "a" parameter in "int add(int a, int b)" are effectively the same variable. Writing to the former triggers the evaluation of the adder's "always_comb begin : add" block, which writes to "add_ret", which is bound to "my_adder_add_ret", which can then be used in update().

One limitation of the method bindings is that they can only be used once per code path - the binding variables used to shuttle data from the parent module to the child module are signals and thus subject to the no-write-after-read rule, which means that a second "call" to the method would have to overwrite the current binding and thus break the rule. Note that because this rule applies per code path, if you have if() branches you can call the same method in each branch. In practice the one-call rule is not a huge limitation - you can either store the return value somewhere (it's also a signal), or you can add additional copies of your getter methods if you really need to.

Templates and Parameters

Verilog contains the special keywords "genvar" and "generate" which allow for compile-time evaulation and conditional code generation that's somewhere between C preprocesor macros and C++ constexprs. I haven't actually used that feature much, so I haven't yet figured out how to make use of it in Metron. However, Metron does support some basic module parameterization via C++ templates. Only integer templates are supported, but default arguments should work. Metron will also translate const variables into Verilog's "parameter" or "localparam" equivalent and allows for declaring namespaces full of constants (very useful), though the tool support for the "using" keyword is inconsistent so you have to always prefix the constant with the namespace. I should probably add typedef support...

Memories and arrays

Virtual CPUs aren't very useful if they have no RAM. Declaring memories in Verilog is a bit tricky, as each FPGA vendor has slightly different support for blocks of RAM in terms of port width, number of read/write ports, registered vs. unregistered outputs, etcetera. If our Metron/Verilog code has the same behavior as our target FPGA RAM blocks, the RTL compiler will fit our memories into those blocks. If not, the RTL compiler will either spread our memories across thousands of individual storage bits in the FPGA fabric or just give up entirely. Luckily it's not too difficult to encourage the compiler to infer block RAMs, we just need to ensure that the inputs and outputs are clocked.

The module below should turn into a FPGA block RAM after translation + compilation + synthesis - it declares 256 bytes of 8-bit storage with one read/write port. Metron's tracer is currently too lenient with tracing reads and writes to arrays; it doesn't pay attention to the array index so you can (inadvertently) create memories with more read ports than your FPGA can support.

Memories can be initialized via "readmemh" - this will load the memory contents from disk at runtime in C and at compile time in Verilog.

And here's a small client that checksums the above RAM block.

Does Metron actually work in practice?

We've gone over some basic examples of how code works in Metron, but adders and counters aren't very compelling examples and the rules about what Metron will translate are quite restrictive. If you're a C programmer, you may be wondering how to get any actual work done given these constraints. The rules may seem weird and arbitrary, but there's not a lot we can do to avoid it - even something as simple as dereferencing a pointer has no directly equivalent meaning in hardware, which means that whole swathes of language features and algorithms are immediately thrown out the window.

Instead, writing in Metron requires adopting a different mindset- you're not writing a program, you're building a machine. The machine takes one step forward at each clock cycle, computing its new state from its old state using the code that you've provided. That state can be almost arbitrarily complex, but it's fundamentally static - the classes and structs that you instantiate at compile time are all you've got.

Once you have a mental image of what your machine does and the steps needed to do it, you can start sketching out the modules you'll need to accomplish the task. Let's take a look at an example much more interesting than a counter, but not that much more complex: generating a VGA video signal. I've intentionally avoided putting comments in the code here to give you a chance to puzzle it out yourself.

With a bit of effort we could hook our VGA module up to SDL and draw the simulated VGA output on screen - and there's an example of that already in the examples folder (see examples/pong/metron/pong.h) if you'd like to take a look.

With a bit more effort we can also take this module, compile and upload it to a FPGA (again outside the scope of this tutorial), and wire it up to a real monitor - it will display a red checkerboard with a white border, the same as the simulation.

I'm fairly confident at this point that Metron is a useful tool for "real" hardware development, but only time will tell for sure.

Tying it all together with a UART example

Last up, let's take a closer look at that UART (serial port) example from Metron's testbench. This example produces identical output in C, Verilator, Icarus, and when uploaded to a FPGA using Yosys+NextPNR+IceProg, so it's fairly well tested. It uses template parameters to control transmission speed and whether the message is repeated. It also consists of multiple modules tied together through ports to demonstrate how to build more complex systems in a slightly more realistic fashion. We'll briefly walk through each module to point out how things are connected.

The whole example consists of a UART client that transmits a buffer over the uart (uart_hello), the UART transmitter, the UART receiver, and a "top" module to tie things together. The top module is responsible for sending signals back to the testbench and routing signals between modules. You can see how verbose the port connections get, and this isn't even a large set of modules.

Next, the UART client. It receives "clear to send" and "idle" signals from the transmitter and sends "request" and "data" signals back to it. It also sends a "done" signal to uart_top to stop the simulation once the buffer's been transmitted.

Now for the UART transmitter, which is basically a shift register with a bit of extra timing code. I've tested this with CYCLES_PER_BIT=1 and it worked both in simulation and in an iCE40 FPGA (with the clock divided way down), though I had to add "extra_stop_bits" to ensure that it would be able to re-sync with my USB-to-serial dongle.

And last the UART receiver, which has an additional checksum output for testing.

Together with a small C++ testbench and a set of commands to do the FPGA synthesis, the UART example makes for a nice round-trip proof of concept that Metron can produce correct, synthesizable code that works on all the platforms it supports. It's been my regular sanity-check while writing Metron - it's big enough to do a useful thing and small enough to test quickly, so most of my "How do I do X in language Y?" questions were worked out here first.

Closing remarks

I've written this tutorial with the hopes that it is clear and straightforward enough to encourage programmers who have not yet tried writing Verilog to play around with Metron and hopefully learn some new skills and new ways of thinking about programming.

I'm also familiar enough with how Verilog and other HDLs are used in the industry that I expect a small bit of controversy over Metron's existence. The idea that a "procedural-ish" language like C++ can be translated into a "hardware-ish" language like Verilog without going to heroic lengths to annotate and instrument and unwind and unroll and functional-state-machine-ify the codebase is... pretty unusual, near as I can tell. Most of the popular cross-language tools either require you to write weirdly verbose C++ (SystemC), hide a lot of the generated complexity from you (Vivado HLS), or wrap hardware concepts in a much-higher-level functional language that not everyone is familiar with (Chisel, Spinal, Bluespec). There are also research papers about other C-to-Verilog conversion tools that do some exceedingly complex translation steps including emitting entire virtual CPUs specialized to run the translated source code (!!!). If I wasn't Metron's author, I would be understandably skeptical. I would suspect that either Metron would be too limited to do anything useful with, or that it would miss some obvious corner cases and generate incorrect code when trying to implement more complex projects. I think I've covered the former adequately, and while I have a good couple thousand lines of work towards the latter there's still a lot of testing to be done.

Because it's a bit unconventional, I've tried to provide a good set of tests and examples to demonstrate that Metron works for RTL development in practice. In the example folder you'll find a couple RISC-V CPUs that pass the RV32I test suite, the simple serial UART shown above, the Pong example mentioned in the section about VGA output, all the tutorial sources that appear here, and a couple unfinished conversions. The tests folder contains a pretty good suite of Metron unit tests that both verify that Metron can convert the source files and a handful of additional tests that run Metron code in lockstep with C-to-Verilog-to-C-via-Verilator translated code to verify that Metron produces results bit-identical to the Verilator simulation. There is also a full C-to-FPGA build pipeline set up for the UART example.

One aspect I only briefly touched on in this tutorial is performance. You could argue that Metron is cheating compared to Icarus/Verilator/etcetera since it doesn't support everything Verilog can do, but what it can do it does very, very fast.

For example, there's a Python-based hardware description language called MyHDL that includes a couple small benchmarks. One of those is "lfsr24", a simple 24-bit random number generator. According to their docs, MyHDL can run the benchmark (~16 million cycles) in about 67 seconds using the "pypy" runtime. The same module in Metron runs in debug builds (on an AMD 5900x) in 0.8 seconds. In an -O3 release build, it runs in 0.025 seconds (25 milliseconds) - 2700x faster.

This is a totally unfair comparison since I have no idea what processor the original benchmark was run on and I haven't (yet) replicated the MyHDL numbers myself (I get 162 seconds for "python3", which seems off), but the sheer scale difference is interesting by itself. Simulating 16 million cycles of _anything_ in 25 milliseconds is a simulation rate of ~640 megahertz. On a 4 gigahertz processor, that's only a bit over 6 cycles per simulation step - the lfsr24 module is admittedly doing very little (just shifts and xors), but beating 6 cycles by any significant factor would probably require assembly language.

As a slightly larger benchmark, the "pong" example (basically the VGA output example above plus a "ball" and a "paddle") simulates 420000 cycles (1 full VGA frame) in 1.56 milliseconds, or a bit over 10x faster than realtime. The simulation rate is (420000/0.00156) = ~268 mhz or ~15 cycles per simulation step, and that includes the framebuffer update and support code in SDL, plus whatever overhead comes from running the app in a virtual machine. The UART testbench runs at around 400 Mhz when continuously sending itself a 512-byte message in loopback mode. These are pretty interesting numbers, and they suggest that entire (small) systems with CPU + RAM + peripherals can be simulated in realtime while maintaining simulation accuracy versus a Verilog+FPGA target. Translating GateBoy/LogicBoy to Metron is up next.

Metron should make it possible to write small, simple hardware peripherals that simulate in realtime (or faster) on a PC, work flawlessly when compiled for a FPGA, and that are understandable and debuggable by most C++ programmers without special tools. I look forward to seeing what people do with it.

-Austin Appleby